Nutrition, a breakfast problem

While trying to eat healthy I am only an office worker and most of the morning if really have to dash out the door to get to work early to get to practice at night. Those bills just don't pay themselves..However, if I don't eat anything, I'll end up buying candy or drinking coffee with an empty stomach that completely messes up my gut.

My friend Sebi commented that he uses this specific recipe he picked out of BJJWeekly for a good breakfast. Should really try this out some morning.

The recipe is as follows:

"The night before take out about a cup of frozen fruit (I use Wyman's Mixed Berries but anything will work) and put it in a bowl. If you like you can drizzle it with a little honey. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and leave it in the refrigerator overnight. In the morning mix it up with a cup of cottage cheese and you've got a delicious high protien, high fiber, low carb meal that will keep you fueled up till lunch. For an extra bonus crumble on a few crushed walnuts or macademia nuts. If you want to limit your sugar you can skip the honey, but your fruit won't be nearly as juicy in the morning."


Roger Gracie talks about evolution of bjj competition and admits he is teaching the berimbolo :)

A great interview sponsored by Scramble:

How to be a champion?

I am no superserious competitor myself but caught myself thinking today what it would take to do good in say purple/brown belt mundials. Here are some thoughts..

You need an instructor who knows how to build champions
This can be hard to achieve if you live outside the US or Brazil and you don’t have too much BJJ near you home but trying to have a good instructor is vital. Lloyd Irvin commented the issue like this on InsideBJJ:

“The only factor you should consider, if your goal is to become a World Champion, is have they created a World champion before?  You also have to look deep because many of these celebrity instructors also attract students that come from other teams and already have a decent skill set.  This is common and happens at my school also.  All of the time these days!  You have to see what students they have taken from white belt and turned them into World Champions and also look at what they have done for the guys that came in already with skill sets. Did they turn them into World Champions?  I just want to make sure my point is clear that I’m only talking about guys who truly want to give it their best shot at becoming a World Champion.  If they just want to compete for the fun of it, they can join any team that allows their students to compete.”

I would also emphasize the importance of the everyday instructor, as I think he gives 99% of the guidance and the remaining 1% comes from fancy seminars. It doesn’t help if there is a superinstructor teaching 10000 miles away in Japan under the same affiliation who comes by every 5 years.

If we’re thinking about black belt level, there probably are a number of champion makers out there such as Saulo Ribeiro, Fabio Gurgel, Ramon Lemos & Andre Galvao, Fernando Terere, Leo Vieira etc. 

You need to have someone better than you as a training partner
This can be difficult to achieve if you’re Roger Gracie or Marcelo Garcia but most of us are in a situation where they can find a class where there’s a handful of people who will beat you most of the time. I guess Roger and the likes of him who don’t have an equal training partner try to go against the training partner’s strengths and not their weaknesses.

The importance of having good training partners can be witnessed with the creation of champion hubs such as Fabio Gurgel’s academy in Sao Paulo and the Atos academy in Rio Claro (or San Diego)

You need to drill and do a serious amount of boring repetitions
This is emphasized by nearly everybody including Andre Galvao in his new book and Lloyd Irvin in the interview above. I’ve also heard that the Alliance pro guys do a good amount of repetitions on their go to techniques every day.

You can’t eat like normal office geeks
My cousin is a pro basketball player and I really feel bad for him. Apparently there are like 4 dishes they’re allowed to eat and most of the time it is prepared by the team chef.

You have to train and compete a lot
Self explanatory. For us hobbyists, this is the most important one


Eating like Andre, day three

Breakfast: Bread and honey, oatmeal
Snack: Didn’t have to time for it at work
Lunch: Veal steak, pasta and greens
Snack: Tangerine and a cinnamon roll (slipped)
Dinner: Chicken and rice
After dinner: Nuts, tea

Pretty decent day apart from the cinnamon roll. It is nearly impossible to stop eating every snack they offer at the office. If you’re a athlete, the people around you probably eat like athletes which would make things easier.

Interview on Ary Farias' early days

If you've watched the Arte Suave documentaries, you probably remember a section with Jacare Souza sparring with a little kid. That kid was Ary Farias who is now one of the best featherweights in the world. A good article



Eating like Andre, day two

Breakfast: Natural yogurt, bread with honey
Snack: Tangerine
Lunch: Bread, egg, some greens
Snack: Tangerine
Dinner after workout: Recovery drink, Salad with mozzarella
Later: Nuts

Felt pretty good to get to eat the honey in the morning yesterday, I needed something sweet. Besides that, I ate a bit lighter than the day before yesterday. Had a lot of energy to exercise with the diet.


Eating like Andre, 1 day

Breakfast: Yogurt, banana, oatmeal
Snack: Tangerine
Lunch: Meatballs, salad & potatoes
Snack: Tangerine
Dinner: Salmon, sweet potato, cucumber based sauce
Later: Nuts, yogurt

Feel pretty good, but since I am accustomed to candy and sweet snack my body woke up screaming for sugar. Following this diet for a week should reduce the craving for excessive amounts of sugar. Today I’ll be training and see how it goes.

Andre Galvao's diet next week

I recently got the drill to win book by Andre Galvao and in the first chapter he describes his diet (when not dropping weight). As I am probably the worst junk eater in BJJ, I figured reporting how better eating would affect how my training feels like and what my energy levels are. I usually eat too many snacks and candy and sodas there should be a clear benefit for me.

Andre's diet is very basic and nutricious but he also uses a lot of supplements (of which I only use glutamine and protein shakes). It emphasizes the importance of night protein consumed before going to bed to let your muscles grow. It also has similar characteristics to other bjj diets, such as eating the fruit separately from other foods. It goes as follows:

For breakfast:
Fruit (banana,apple,blueberries,strawberries, etc.)
Whole wheat toast with olive oil and honey
Cereal (oatmeal or quinoa)
Whole yoghurt or whey protein shake

Snack (3 hours after breakfast, 30 min to 1 hour before lunch)
One fruit

One kind of complex carb (sweet potato, rice, pasta..)
Animal protein (meat, chicken, eggs etc.)
Green salad and vegetables

Snack: (3 hours after lunch, 30 min to 1 hour before dinner)
One fruit

Roots/carbs (sweet potato or manioc) with olive oil and little salt
Fish, eggs or mozzarella cheese
Green salad and vegetables

Before bed:
Handful of nuts, whey protein shake or yogurt

This diet is for an athlete who trains regularily so I will try to do at least 5 training during the week. Just had natural yogurt with banana and oatmeal porrigde for breakfast..I will write down the stuff I eat and how I feel while training


Shaolin sweep from half guard

I've was recently learned a few good details about the Shaolin sweep from half guard/z-guard. This sweep goes by many names such as roll over sweep (Caio Terra), the Frazzatto etc. This is the sweep that Bruno Frazzatto hit on Cobrinha in the 2008 mundials. Many people see this as something advanced, but in my opinion this a basic sweep that we all should master. It is also good as a movement drill.

The new details about the grips and the movement of the arm while going for the sweep are all explained in this video. Just have the patience to watch and absorb..


Pablo Popovitch diet

While eating chocolates today, I started thinking about what I should really eat if I could control myself.

BJJ nutrition discussions seems to be heavily influenced by the Gracie diet, which emphasizes not mixing foods that do not match in a single meal. You could combine foods that go well with each other.

Now I stublem upon Pablo Popovitch’s diet which has (not surprisingly) similar characteristics to it. Pablo must have a good diet when you look at his physique. The bad thing is I could never have milk, d’oh!

Link to article


Shoyoroll Mitsuyo Maeda pre-sale

If you don't mind waiting six months for a gi...For me, these are perhaps too thin. Probably my next one is a Padilla or a Storm

Name: BATCH 11 前田 光世 (AKA THE COUNT)
Type: 450 Pearl weave Jacket / 10oz Drill Cotton Pants w/ Gold Weave crotch

Color: White w/ Dark Gray & Yellow Trim

Price: $165 retail

ETA on Shipping: 4/5 2011

Special Release News: Combo Limited Series Sticker / Shirt / Deck will be sold as well.
DATE SALE: 11/24 MIDNIGHT PST (1 HR ONLY) AND 11/25 (1 HR or Less)


DVD Review: Caio Terra 111 half guard techniques

First let me start out by saying that 111 techniques is a lot of material and this set will last for years. Caio also puts in a nice amount of details so you really can’t fast forward this set and think you really got it all. I feel that the set is also quite gi centered as many techniques rely on lapel grips etc.
At first glance the structure of dvd seems unclear. I was very puzzled in the beginning with things like “underhooks and hooks” but once I got used to it, it’s actually quite clear. The structure of the dvd can be seen at:


The DVD starts in a logical way with “getting out of bad spots”, explaining how to escape to a better position when your opponent has established a dominant control against you half guard. Usually this means getting a good cross face and flattening you out or getting close to completing the knee slide pass. Caio shows very good techniques how to put your opponent back into your preferred distance and re-establish the knee-shield.

“Getting out of bad spots” section 2 is more about reversing the situation when the opponent does something to disrupt your knee shield distance control. Aka, the situation is not as bad as in section 1. The disruption can be a switching of the hips and turning or simply underhooking your leg etc. Caio goes through almost any reasonable scenario and presents good solutions.

“Underhooks and hooks” focuses first on the traditional underhook sweeps you can hit when you get to your side with an underhook. As in many modern jiu jitsu DVDs, the knee shield is used as means to getting into a proper underhook half guard position on your side. This is a good thing and I feel this DVD overall helps to speed up the understanding of linking these half guard positions (knee shield & underhook half guard). Caio variations of the classical sweeps were also a bit different that I am used to seeing, which was refreshing.

After these sections the dvd goes through different half guards and half guard related guards one by one. The sections that stood out the most were the single leg guard, scissor guard and the kimura. Probably because they are the most basic sections. I find myself watching the basic stuff on this dvd over and over again, while with many other lesser dvds I tend to get bored and skip to the fancy techniques. This is most likely because Caio’s ability to explain details is very good.

The single leg guard section is about the sit up guard with one of your opponent’s legs between your legs and your front leg pushing his far leg. I usually go to this from the De La Riva guard. What really astounded me was that Caio did not focus on a single preferred grip position or a single way the opponent bases, but basically went through them all. Even for a single leg guard player, many of the grip variations were completely new.

The scissor guard (low knee shield guard with cross grip on the sleeve) and kimura are short sections but the reason I liked them a lot was that Caio explains the guards in a very tactical way. In scissor guard for example he goes into great detail about the exact moment when to push your opponent over in the scissor sweep (the moment he tries to move his arm a little bit further out). A good tactical detail in the kimura section is how to roll into armbar using your shin if your opponent is too strong for the kimura from half guard.

I also have to mention that the deep half guard section is probably the most complete deep half guard sweeping set out there. It has more sweeps than Jeff Glover’s set although Jeff goes more into how to get into the deep half guard. Some of the variation are different to Glover’s set. The leg work in the Homer Simpson sweep is different etc.

Overall, I see lot techniques that are useful and very suitable for competition. What is crucial, the DVD gives options on what to do if you happen to lose a certain important grip from a certain position. This means it is a complete approach.

As a conclusion this set is a good set. It would be perfect for a person who has started out with closed guard (as the majority of us do) and has begun looking into half guard. For the more experience guard player, this is basically the bible of half guard.



Lessons from BJJ Finnish Open 2011

All the streaming from Finnish Open 2011 can be watched at: www.bjj.tv

I did not compete this year but we did a lot of preparations with my friend Toni who was competing at blue belts under 76kg. He had a good gameplan but ended up losing the first match by points, 6-4 (2 sweeps each and a takedown for the opponent).

With Toni’s permission I review some parts of the fight..

Right of the bat, the gameplan was to pull guard and Toni did. The problem was so did his opponent at the same moment. Toni went on top. He had a decent posture but the opponent was able to spin under and grab the far leg for sweep. On top of giving up 2 points, Toni ended up in a poor guard position on the bottom. Opponent tried to pass but Toni’s guard retention was top notch. In a minute, he was able to get to butterfly guard and execute a Marcelo Garcua style hook sweep with a collar grip.

Next Toni had a very good cross pass attempt, but once his legs were free to opponent was able to force himself to his knees and they finally ended up standing. Toni then starts looking for a good guard pull, but the opponent is able to catch a single leg takedown. I guess many of us do this mistake (I know I have) for waiting to long to pull guard and execute our game plan. Fortunately Toni felt to a good guard position and sweep the opponent quickly from x-guard.

Next the opponent went for a triangle/armbar setup but Toni showed good defense and postured out. A good detail was how he used his knee to push the opponent further away while posturing out. Toni went for another cross pass attempt and threatens with a collar choke. The opponent is able to rock his base while both arms are in and roll to a single leg. The rest of the match is spent in guard position.

What to take from this?
We saw a good amount of single leg sweeps and takedowns at Finnish Open 2011,also in Toni’s match. Single legs are often not forced and driven until the end in rolling because this is often not considered “technical” or good rolling etiquette. However, they often are a decisive factor in competition.

It is incredible how we were honing the exact things that cost him the points just this week, single leg sprawling (distance control) & defense and of course deep half guard defense. I guess we should do these more often.

The second thing is that we were once again reminded that conditioning is everything. Even Toni felt I bit gassed during the last minute of his match. I forced myself to run 60 floors up and down tonight. Yeah!


Gi review: Isami double weave


As the name suggests, the Isami double weave is a double weave kimono. However, it definitely is not immovable and unbreakable object such as an Atama or Howard double weave. They currently allow you to pick between 2 fabric types that are diamond and sachiko.  The diamond Is the lighter version while sachiko is a little bit sturdier. The kimono I have as a sachiko fabric blue A3. 

Overall, the Sachiko fabric has been very easy on the skin and it showed minimal shrinkage after the first ten washes. Isami themselves tell that the the jacket should shrink 1% vertically and 5% horizontally. This statement is quite accurate according to my experience.

I have washed the gi 15 times now and the colours are almost exactly what they were when I got it. The gi has experienced very little post wash stiffness which is fairly common with some of my other kimonos such as the Keiko raca and Gameness.

The gi I have also has a ridiculous amount of patches. There were a lot of “default” patches on the gi when I bought but also got a few extra reversal brand patches to put on back and next to the collar.


I compared the Isami to Atama white single weave A3 which seems to have the average fit on the market (Slightly snugger than Koral, but maybe slightly baggier than Keiko). They are pretty similar in fit apart from the Isami being slightly baggier around the gut:

The pant fit is almost identical to the Atama:

I am 182 cm (5.11) and  80+ kilos (180 pounds) and the kimono fits me great. If I could choose, I would like it to be slightly smaller around the gut.


Collar thickness is slightly below that of the Atama. Around Koral’s thickness I’d say. 

The sleeve is a little roomier than the Atama. For me this is slight drawback because I really hate going against spider guard when grips on my sleeves become difficult to break.

The pant string is very basic:

There is a really solid reinforment  on the pant leg. A really nice detail:


A really fine gi with superb quality. It is a bit on the pricey side (around 200 USD) but at least every other guy at the gym is not wearing these. You can get the gi with a really classic look with no patches or go crazy with the patches when you order it (they let you choose). I would prefer the gi to be slightly more competition oriented (tighter sleeves and little snuggier) but for training purposes this is one the best.


You can buy the Isami from Chokesports:

or directly from Isami Kimonos

Edit: The sizing has changed, and under the new sizes I guess mine would be an 5L. However if you follow the chokesports link, they have a ridicolously exact sizing chart including custom sizes


BJJ Finnish open this weekend

The Finnish open of BJJ is this week end and a lot of friends are competing. I will try to report some observations and maybe shoot some video..Been preparing with some friends a bit, and it is easy to see how competing will enhance your development. You really have to think about your weaknesses and start plugging holes and discard things that don't work.

As many are now in the phase where they start resting maybe this could be the time to start visualizing how you're gonna win as Andre suggests:


Bill "The Grill" Cooper's nogi action

A sort of crazy match by Bill Cooper. He seems to be losing for the first 4 minutes or so..He is in so many bad positions.

The it's like he goes all "playtime's over" and catches the opponent almost immediately. You can see some of the passing techniques from his dvd in this fight..

DVD Review: Bill Cooper: Deep half guard killer

As a second review, I am taking on Bill Cooper’s deep half guard KILLER!

First impression are: production quality is pretty damn good, and you get to see to techniques from a lot of different angles. The dvd is divided into 2 sections and has some bonus footage such as the “rolled up” episode with Bill Cooper. Unfortunately there is no fight footage. The 2 sections are:

-Deep half guard killer

-Favourite guard passes

The list of techniques is at:


The deep half guard killer section offers a lot of new stuff. Most of the deep half passes I’ve seen before rely on getting an underhook and stepping over the head (Andre Galvao etc.). Bill focuses more on getting a kimura control on the far arm and getting your body behind the opponent’s head. One thing that is bothering me with the deep half guard techniques is that the dvd is lacking the explanation on how to establish the initial control for the pass (kimura-crucifix control for example). Luckily the getting the hidden arm part helps with this.

The techniques seem to work pretty well in sparring (for what I’ve had a chance to try). Some of the techniques on the dvd have the problem of giving up top position. Bill might give up a sweep to land a d’arce choke for example. This approach seems typical for Bill Cooper’s attack-oriented style, which I love but don’t do myself. In addition to the kimura-crucifix pass I especially enjoyed the arm drag bating in “Forward roll to armdrag to the back”.

The favorite guard passes section has a lot of wild and dynamic nogi passing. Some of the passes require a fair amount of athleticism and would perhaps not be the go-to passes if you’re a 40-year old office worker.

The beginning of the set focuses on open guard and end of the set on traditional butterfly guard. The most interesting part for me was the use of kimura to pass the open guard. I remember always looking at these kimura passes and back takes as some sort of special trick but now I see Andre Galvao using them as back takes, Rafael Mendes using them…

As a summary: Good production quality and the techniques seem to work. These are many new techniques that I’ve never seen before. The biggest problem seems to be that the dvd doesn’t full cover the positions and entries to the positions but only the passes. However, the dvd has one really good attribute: It reminds how to have fun with jiu jitsu and that we should take occasional risks on the mats.


PS. Here is the teaser.


DVD review: Andre Galvao: Details, concepts, game plan

As I’ve done my fair share of watching Brazilian jiu jitsu technique dvds, I devided that I should start writing reviews from time to time. I’ve had the Andre Galvao dvd set for over a year now, and figured this would be a good one to start with.

The set consists of 5 sections:
-          -Stand up game
-          -Passing guard
-          -Half guard (bottom and top)
-          -Open guard
-          -Back control (includes back takes and submissions)

The exact list of techniques can be found at:

The stand up game section can be seen as a fairly complete stand up game apart from the fact that it skips the basic double legs and single legs. It is also somewhat judo oriented but the judo is very modified to fit jiu jitsu competition. Another thing which makes this set very good for people interested in competition that it also discusses pulling guard. Which is even better, it addresses how to keep your opponent from effectively pulling his favourite guard! A great set if you already have the basic stand skills down. I would have wanted to see more grip fighting details.

The passing guard section is just great…It shows a complete passing game, including solutions to situations where your opponents puts you into more exotic guards such as the leg lasso guard. As it is Andre’s game it doesn’t have passes from to one leg in the middle fighting pose, but instead the game is built round toreanda. The best passing set I’ve seen.

Half guard section also offers a complete game. The only thing I think is sweeps from the knee shield position. Andre shows how to use the knee shield to get an under, but the basic rollovers etc. are not covered. The section includes both top and bottom.

The open guard section focuses mostly on guard replacement and butterfly guard. The guard replacements are vital and they are explained with similar quality and detail than in Demian Maia’s set about the subjet. The butterfly sweeps are combined in a logical manner. This section was the first that really helped me understand the body movements of a good hook sweep. Probably because Andre’s movements are smooth..

The back position section is simply a complete back game. The first technique “maintaining the back position” is incredibly  valuable..it helps you understand how to stop the basic back mount escape (go to underhook’s side, press another hook down and get to half guard) and regain the back control. Should be drilled once a week!

Andre’s movement on the dvd is just superfluid, and he is good fighter to try to copy. On top of that Andre’s dvd is one of the few that really take time to explain vital details. Other such dvds in my opinion include the Caio Terra half guard dvd, Ryal Hall dvds and of course the classic Saulo Ribeiro revolution jiu jitsu dvds.

OVERALL GRADE: 9/10 (wish there would have been more grip fighting)

Good training today on single leg guard

Did my usual sunday routine today, which meant drilling Caio Terra's half guard techniques one by one. Today was especially a good day because we were going through single leg guard techniques. The single leg guard is something if had good success with, but I usually have had to rely on the far sleeve control. My best sweep has been just feeding the far sleeve to my other hand, blocking the foot with my straight leg and pulling the collar to plant the guy on his face.

Basically I use the same controls apart from the hook in front of the opponent's leg as the Mendes bros in this back take:

Today we went through a variation where you sweep forward using the near sleeve. This is very good to have in your repertoire if you happen to lose the far sleeve. You just feed the near sleeve to your hand from between his legs, pull the near arms triceps/armpit towards the mat with your other hand, and rotate your knee behind his knee towards the mat as well to plant him on his face. Check Caio Terra's 111 techniques of half guard for this technique. I'm gonna be drilling this a lot...

Now I need to get some food..


A good way to pass inverted guard

As inverted guard positions are getting more and more common, I'll try to force myself to learn a simple way around them...

This is the best I've found so far:

Swimming for BJJ conditioning

Went swimmning today to my local indoor pool. This is now the second time this week. Although I am not the best swimmer I kinda like it. (It might actually be better if you have lousy technique so you have spend twice as much energy)

More importantly I think swimming might one of the better options to get in shape for BJJ. It does wonders to your cardio and helps to develop upper body strength. If I'd just go running, I would feel like it's the wrong type of cardio for BJJ. Running hills might be good, but getting exchausted while swimming really resembles getting exchausted while grappling...

Another thing it that swimming is good when you have muscle pain to open the muscles up. It doesn't put strain on your joints either...(unlike lifting and running).

Besides Minotauro Nogueira is a swimmer too..


BJJ conditioning

I just thought about where do I feel tired when I gas in competition on realised it is usually my legs. Then I found Andre Galvao's text about it. He seems to do lifting and plyometric training for legs before competition


Since I started working out with my conditioning trainer Stephen Nave. I started to get stronger. I think because of the way we were training and also I always let him know what I did and what I will do in my BJJ training session. I trained before with many different conditioning trainers. They always have one kind of conception about training. I think for fighters the most important training is the lower body “legs”. Since I started to train with Stephen I’m doing a lot of squats and jumps at least 2 times a week. For my ADCC preparation I did squats for 3 times a week in some of those camp weeks. I felt very good and a lot of soreness too in the beginning of the training. But when you are working on your legs you need to work on your cardio too. Always the legs power lifting training and the plyometric training makes you feel very tired and sore. That is why a lot of fighters or even a normal person doesn’t like to do that. But we must do it at least twice a week.

NOW think about this: “I will work on my legs at least twice a week”. Make your roots strong and nobody can take you down or make you fail. I like to do my conditioning 3 or 4 times a week. Not more than that. Okay guys? So now lets Drill to Win and training hard! Remember: “Hard work can beat the talent"



BJJ travel tales to be added to this blog

There are potentially 2 training trip reports coming to this blog in the near future..

My friend and training partner Toni is heading to Rio de Janeiro in December to train. He'll most likely visit at least Ricardo Vieira's school..

I personally am heading to the US BJJ Mecca of San Diego in early 2012 to escape the Finnish winter.

Learn to defend the triangle from the triangle master himself

Just found a good an simple clip from Ryan Hall on what to do when trapped in the triangle. The grips and reactions seems very reasonably and I want to try them out in training tomorrow.


A wild idea...

I have been preparing a friend for competition and got a wild idea...

As it is really nice and important to get to spar with guys clearly above your skill level, why not enter a competition clearly above your skill level? ....Just to learn! I know this could not usually be done in BJJ with belt levels unless your purple and they've combined purple, brown and black for example, but in ADCC trials or grapplers quest this might work.

I will definetly sign up to some pro-division tourney at some point to get my ass kicked! :). Go against some Jeff Glover in the first round etc..

As you see, I am not the first to go compete even when completely outclassed:


Joel Tudor.....

I still can't believe this guy...One of the best surfers in the world and also a very high level grappler (submitted Rani Yahya etc). Guess they complement each other (balance etc).

You have top level grapplers being very good at capoeira (Cobrinha, Michael Langhi) and break dancing (Bill Cooper..) but Joel Tudor was THE BEST surfer in the world in 2004 and 1998...Super double talent I guess!

Tudor grappling with Kron:

Joel vs J-Glove:

Joel vs the sea:

Tomorrow I'll try to continue the open guard stuff (problems and mistakes I've personally experienced) with focus on the second way of keeping your opponent from backing out which is putting the de la riva hook in and sweeping (probably will reflect on a few sweeps and a back take and counters to counters)